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Bjarne Stroustrup September 8, 2009

Posted by gordonwatts in CERN, computers, ROOT.

IMG_2253If you are even semi-conscious of the computing world you know this name: Bjarne Stroustrup. He is the father of C++. He started designing the language sometime in the very late 1970’s and continues to this day trying to keep it from getting too “weird” (his words).

He visited CERN this last week, invited by the ROOT team (I took few pictures). I couldn’t see his big plenary talk due to a meeting conflict, but my friend Axel, on the ROOT team, was nice enough to invite me along to a smaller discussion. Presentations made at this discussion should be posted soon here. The big lecture is posted here, along with video (sadly, in flash and wmv format – not quite mp4 as I’ve been discussing!!)! I see that Axel also has a blog and he is posting a summary there too – in more detail than I am.

The C++ standard – which defines the language – is currently overseen by a ISO Standards Committee. Collectively they decide on the features and changes to the language. The members are made up of compiler vendors, library vendors, library authors, large banking organizations, Intel, Microsoft, etc. – people who have a little $$ and  make heavy use of C++. Even high energy physics is represented – Walter Brown from Fermilab. Apparently the committee membership is basically open – it costs about $10K/year to send someone to all the meetings. That is it. Not very expensive. The committee is currently finishing off a new version of the C++ language, commonly referred to as C++0x.

The visit was fascinating. I’ve always known there was plenty of politics when a group of people get together and try to decide things. Heck, I’m in High Energy Physics! But I guess I’d never given much thought to a programming language! Part of the reason it was as fascinating as it was was because several additions to the language that folks in HEP were interested in were taken out at the last minute – for a variety of reasons – so we were all curious as to what happened.

I learned a whole bunch of things during this discussion (sorry for going technical on everyone here!):

  • Bjarne yelled at us multiple times: people like HEP are not well represented on the committee. So join the thing and get views like ours better represented (though he worried if all 150 labs joined at once that might cause a problem).
  • In many ways HEP is now pushing several multi-core computing boundaries. Both in numbers of cores we wish to run on and how we use memory. Memory is, in particular, becoming an acute problem. Some support in the standard would be very helpful.  Minimal support is going in to the new standard, but Bjarne said, amazingly enough, there are very few people on the committee who are willing to work on these aspects. Many have the attitude that one core is really all that is needed!!! Crazy!
  • In particle physics we leak memory like a sieve. Many times our jobs crash because of it. Most of the leaks are pretty simple and a decent garbage collector could efficiently pick up everything and allow our programs to run longer. Apparently this almost made it into the standard until a coalition of the authors of the boost library killed it: if you need a garbage collector then you have a bug; just fix it. Which is all good and glorious in an ideal world, but give me a break! In a 50 million line code base!? One thing Bjarne pointed out was it takes 40 people to get something done on the committee, but it takes only 10 to stop it. Sort of like health insurance. :-)
  • Built in support for memory pools would probably be quite helpful here too. The idea is that when you read in a particle physics event you allocated all the data for that event in a special memory pool. The data from an event is pretty self-contained – you don’t need it once you have done processing that event and move onto the next one. If it is all in its own memory pool, then you can just wipe it out all at once – who cares about actually carefully deleting each object. As part of the discussion of why something like this wasn’t in there (scoped allocators sounds like it might be partway there) he mentioned that HP was “on our side”, Intel was “not”, and Microsoft was one of the most aggressive when it came to adding new features to the language.
  • I started a discussion of how the STL is used in HEP – pointing out that we make very heavy use of vector and map, and then very little else. Bjarne expressed the general frustration that no one was really writing their own containers. In the ensuing discussion he dissed something that I often make use of – the for_each loop algorithm. His biggest complaint was who much stuff it added – you had to create a whole new class – which involves lots of extra lines of code – and that the code is no longer near where it is being used (non-locality can make source code hard to read). He is right both are problems, but to him they are big enough to nix its used except in rare circumstances. Perhaps I’ll have to re-look at the way I use them.
  • He is not a fan of OpenMP. I don’t like it either, but sometimes people trot it out as the only game in town. Surely we know enough to do better now. Tasked based parallelism? By slots?
  • Bjarne is very uncomfortable with Lambda’s functions – a short hand way to write one-off functions. To me this is the single best thing being added to the language – it will not be possible to totally avoid having to write another mem_fun or bind2nd template. That is huge, because those things never worked anyway – you could spend hours trying to make the code build, and they added so much cruft to your code you could never understand what you were trying to do in the first place! He is nervous that people will start adding large amounts of code directly into lambda functions – as he said “if it is more than one line, it is important enough to be given a name!!” We’ll have to see how use develops.
  • He was pretty dismissive of proprietary languages. Java and C# both were put in this category (both have international standards behind them, just like C++, however) – citing vendor lock-in. But the most venom I detected was when he was discussing the LLVM open source project. This is a C++ interpreter and JIT. This project was loosely run but has now been taken over by Apple – presumably to be, among other things, packaged with their machines. His comment was basically “I used to think that was very good, but now that it has been taken over by Apple I’d have to take a close look at it and see what direction they were taking it.”
  • Run Time Type Information. C++ came into its own around 1983 or so. No modern language is without the ability to inspect itself. Given an object, you can usually determine what methods are on the object, what the arguments of those methods are, etc. – and most importantly, build a call to that method without having ever seen the code in source form. C++ does not have it. We all thought there was a big reason this wasn’t the case. The real reason: no one has pushed hard enough or is interested enough on the committee. For folks doing dynamic coding or writing interpreters this is crucial. We have to do that in our code and adding the information in after-the-fact is cumbersome and causes code bloat. Apparently we just need to pack the C++ committee!

Usually as someone rises in importance in their field they get more and more diplomatic – it is almost a necessity. If that is the case, Bjarne must have been pretty rough when he was younger! It was great to see someone who was attempting to steer-by-committee something he invented vent his frustrations, show his passion, name names, and at one point threaten to give out phone numbers (well, not really, but he almost gave out phone numbers). He can no longer steer the language exactly as he wants it, but he is clearly still very much guiding it.

You can find slides that were used to guide the informal discussion here. I think archived video from the plenary presentation will appear linked to here eventually if you are curious.

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1. chimpanzee - September 9, 2009

Are you involved with any GPU based supercomputing?

from ARI:

Fast Particle Tracking for (CERN, Switzerland) and CBM (FAIR/GSI, Germany). The terabytes of experimental data must be carefully and in depth analyzed. We expect a few orders of magnitude speed-up when running the track finder application on the proposed cluster hardware. The proposed cluster can therefore play a significant role not only in development of the reconstruction algorithms, but also in the analysis of real data. Implementation, Test and Application of automated cluster management. (KIP, Team of U. Kebschull).

GPUs came out of Computer Graphics research (target markets are 3D Scientific Visualization, Computer Gaming, TV/Film visual-effects) for real-time scene rendering, & have generalized to broader computation. Gaming (contributing to the deliquencey of minors all around the world, recent studies show the demographic as overweight 35 year old males) is a HUGE market, even bigger than TV/Film special effects. This has led to the development of sophisticated video-cards (with powerful GPUs) with low pricepoints. You can build a PC sh*tbos with multiple GPUs, cluster them, & have a nice little supercomputing cluster.

I’m currently planning a PC build around a quad i7 (multiple threading capability), with multiple GPUs (SLI & Crossfire technology). So, your recent quadd i7 build will allow you to play with such stuff.

You can browse last years 2008 SIGGRAPH conference here (Flickr photocast here, video-blog here..see the ATI demo of GPU). This conference takes (art) submissions from Scientists (who create cool images). There is also a Courses session (in parallel with the Technical Papers session), where outsiders like scientists can submit proposals. Maybe there could be one for above topic (HEP), related to GPU programming. Back in 2001, there was even a session on how Feynman Diagrams were being used (Dr. James Blinn, ex-Caltech/JPL computer animation expert responsible for the famous JPL Voyager animations, now with Microsoft Research). Next years SIGGRAPH is in Los Angeles (like in 2008), so maybe you want to get involved.

At the IBM booth, 1 of the people told me that their supercomputer was part of the LHC Tier 1 analysis xxx. There’s a lot of crossover between Computer Graphics & other fields. Note that they have the term “Particle Systems” (computer modeling of natural random phenomena, like fire) which has spawned the slang term “Particle Physics”. This is NOT to be confused with HEP particle physics!! Basically, Computer Graphics is simulation of Light & Motion (“physics”) to produce images & animation..basically Physics Simulation using computers. So, they are essentially doing computational physics, with an eye towards visual output (“simulation”). They have gone down to the “molecular level”, with terms that are physics related: BRDF (Bidirectional radiance distribution function) & Montel Carlo methods.

2. chimpanzee - September 9, 2009

This would be of interest to you:

First Workshop on Language, Compiler, and Architecture Support for GPGPU
August 31st, 2009
GPUs are evolving as massively threaded vector machines. While the primary design goal of the GPUs is efficient processing of the graphics stack, the massive parallelism available in these chips has lately opened up the possibility of carrying out general-purpose computing on them. This computing paradigm is called GPGPU. Although manually mapping regular data-parallel applications to GPUs has been explored quite extensively, making truly general-purpose computing feasible on GPUs requires answering a number of important questions. This half-day workshop aims at bringing together the researchers and practitioners in this rapidly evolving area with a goal of addressing issues related to programming languages, programming models, compiler optimizations, and architecture to make GPGPU a conducive execution environment for regular as well as irregular applications.

The topics of interest include, but are not limited to, the following.

New GPU architecture features to enhance GPGPU
Memory system innovations to enhance GPGPU
Implications of GPGPU on memory consistency models
Architecture support for single-chip CPU-GPU integration
Programming models and language support for GPGPU
Compiler Optimization for GPGPU
Debugging/Performance visualization tools for GPGPU
Efficient synchronization support for GPGPU
Performance evaluation of irregular applications on GPUs
Energy-efficiency studies on GPGPU
GPGPU benchmarks

General background info on GPU here

A new concept is to use a modified form of a stream processor to allow a general purpose graphics processing unit. This concept turns the massive floating-point computational power of a modern graphics accelerator’s shader pipeline into general-purpose computing power, as opposed to being hard wired solely to do graphical operations. In certain applications requiring massive vector operations, this can yield several orders of magnitude higher performance than a conventional CPU. The two largest discrete (see “Dedicated graphics cards” above) GPU designers, ATI and NVIDIA, are beginning to pursue this new market with an array of applications. Both nVidia and ATI have teamed with Stanford University to create a GPU-based client for the Folding@Home distributed computing project (for protein folding calculations). In certain circumstances the GPU calculates forty times faster than the conventional CPUs traditionally used in such applications.[10][11]

Recently NVidia began releasing cards supporting an API extension to the C programming language called CUDA (“Compute Unified Device Architecture”), which allows specified functions from a normal C program to run on the GPU’s stream processors. This makes C programs capable of taking advantage of a GPU’s ability to operate on large matrices in parallel, while still making use of the CPU where appropriate. CUDA is also the first API to allow CPU-based applications to access directly the resources of a GPU for more general purpose computing without the limitations of using a graphics API.

3. Robert Cudmore - September 10, 2009

Awesome. He was my idol starting back in 1993 when I got a the programming job in a molecular biology lab to develop Map Manager. My first task was to take a monolithic program for the Mac written in Pascal and convert it to C++ and cross platform (with interface). His C++ book was so tattered by the end, I wish I still had a copy.

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